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      個性化閱讀和個性化作文
      【字體:
      個性化閱讀和個性化作文
      作者:邵曉玲    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2008-1-14

       

          在作文個性化教學改革實驗過程中,我們發現學生作文缺少獨立的思考見解和真情實感,難以張揚個性,抒我之見。其根本原因在于長期以來養成了依賴性閱讀,局限于現成的結論,缺乏個性化閱讀。針對此種情況,我們從閱讀教學入手,重視增強學生獨立思考的能力,珍視學生對生活的獨特感受,養成靈活的、求真的寫作習慣,引導學生走出呆板的、單調的作文寫作模式。
        在語文教學的園地上,閱讀教學和作文教學是兩條相得益彰的風景線。要改革作文教學必須同時改革閱讀教學。要搞作文個性化必須同時講究閱讀的個性化。寫作是學生的個性化行為,也不應以教師的指導代替學生的寫作實踐。同樣,閱讀教學也應該注意培養學生的個性,重視學生的個性閱讀體驗。學生的閱讀過程是一個再創造的過程,閱讀《紅樓夢》,一千個讀者的心中有一千個林妹妹。學生的年齡不同,個性不同,境遇不同,對教材的理解也必然不盡相同。新課程標準提出閱讀是學生的個性化行為,不應以教師的分析來代替學生的閱讀實踐。
        在閱讀教學過程中,我盡量避免簡單的知識傳授,避免用教師的分析來代替學生的閱讀實踐。先放手讓學生閱讀課文,給學生較多的時間,讓學生反復地充分地閱讀,讓學生有時間思考,讓學生能夠形成獨特感受、體驗、理解。在此基礎上,讓學生談自己的閱讀體驗,評價作者,評價文章觀點,鑒賞寫作技巧。在學生交流的過程中,我有時提出疑問,有時發表自己觀點,與學生一起討論交流,大家各抒己見,互相啟發。學生有時觀點顯得幼稚可笑,有時又奇異怪誕,但都是他們自己獨立思考的結果,都是他們獨特的感受體驗理解。
        例如在教學錢鐘書的《讀〈伊索寓言〉》這篇課文時,我抓住錢鐘書重新解讀寓言這一點,鼓勵學生作出自己新的解讀。對螞蟻和促織的故事,朱飛同學就提出說促織夏天免費給螞蟻唱歌,螞蟻卻在促織都快要餓死了,還吝嗇的不愿意給促織提供一點糧食,螞蟻表現的太自私自利了,就象我們中的有些人一樣,只知道向別人伸手,不愿意付出,面對螞蟻這一類人,就應該以其人之道還治其人之身,促織夏天也別再給他免費唱歌了,可以向他收取費用,這樣促織就不至于在冬天餓死了。狐貍和葡萄的故事,有同學提出了狐貍吃不到葡萄說葡萄酸,這是一個人最正常不過的心理,無可厚非。我們每一個人在遇到挫折和困難的時候,都應該像這只狐貍一樣,學會自我安慰、自我排解,生活才會快樂,才會充滿陽光。
        學生的這些看法、與我的理解多有不同之處,他們的感受理解層面可能只是很小的一點,有的膚淺、有的偏激、有的甚至怪異,使人一下子感到不可思議。但是應該看到,學生認真的閱讀了課文,有了自己獨特的理解感受,敢于大膽把自己的理解談出來,積極參與課堂討論,這是難能可貴的。我對學生的觀點,積極肯定、極力表揚。并提醒學生下課后將自己的想法再做進一步充實、完善,整理在札記本上。課堂教學中讓學生在主動積極的思維和情感活動中,加深理解和體驗,有所感悟和思考,受到情感熏陶,獲得思想啟迪,享受審美樂趣。
        思想是寫作的源泉,學生養成了獨立思考問題的習慣,遇事有自己的見解了,再寫起作文時,就有話可說了,如骨鯁在喉,不吐不快,學生也就不會有作文作文,叫人頭疼的畏懼思想了,不會感到作文難了。
        學生消除了對作文的畏懼感,我建議每個同學根據自己寫作功底,擬訂一個切實可行的計劃。平時我還不斷的提醒學生隨時記下一些新想法新思路,給作文積累素材。每一次布置的作文話題,我都精心篩選。我們的每一個學生個性心理特征不同,就形成了自己獨特的個性,表現出一個個不同的。作文個性化說到底就是寫我見、我感、我聞、我想、我識,表現我的喜怒哀樂,愛恨欲惡。高一學生在寫作的初級階段,見到《我的老師》《誠信》《我的理想》等題目不知如何下手,感到無話可說。我就讓學生先從寫自己開始。我給出羨慕自己欣賞自己的話題,幫助學生尋找自己的優點,善于和別人比較,挖掘發現自己的長處發展潛能,學會發展自己的特長,積累讓人羨慕的資本。這樣的話題能調動學生的表達需要,有話可說,這樣就能寫出有個性的作文。
        在平時的教學中,我還很注意給學生創造作文情境。或是給同學們提供一組音樂,通過音樂串聯故事,啟迪學生創造性思維;或是提出一組能激起學生思辯的對立的觀點,讓學生分成正方反方各抒己見,爭個高下;例如學習《孔雀東南飛》,讓同學辯論劉蘭芝到底該不該死;或是講述一個開頭,讓學生以己之情思接著往下寫,如學習柳永《雨霖鈴》,根據作者所選意象,請描寫長亭惜別畫面;或是模擬法庭,引發學生控訴辯論;或是提出一種值得思考注意的生活現象,讓學生浮想聯翩。例如,在金菊盛開時節,我領著學生在校園里觀賞菊花,讓學生觀察、思考、聯想,激發學生情感體驗,激發學生書面表達的欲望。學生在作文中,有頌揚菊花不畏風霜品質的;有贊美菊根默默奉獻的;有寫鮮花還需綠葉配的;還有抨擊采摘菊花不道德行為的。可謂異彩紛呈、千姿百態。
        太陽每天都是新的,每個人每天都應該產生自己的新思想,發前人所未發,明前人所未明,在作文中標新立異,唯陳言之務去。世界上沒有兩片相同的葉子,沒有一個人能同時踏進同一條河流,情境不同,感觸不同,情以物遷只要寫出自己獨到的見解,就是創造,就會有新意,就是個性,就會不落俗套,表現方法等也會靈活調遣,語言也會有聲有色,有情有味。
        境能生情,情動辭發,寫作也就成了一種傾訴了。學生充分感受到具體的特定的情境,有話可說,有人可寫,有事可記,有理可論,有情可抒。由此觸發其寫作情緒,增強了感知的敏捷性,情感的豐富性以及認識事理的感悟性和靈活性,通過這種情境訓練還提高了學生適應不同情境作文的應變能力。
        通過長期這種課堂教學渲染氣氛,培養創新思維,提高作文興趣的方法,來搭建作文個性化平臺,使學生養成了良好的思維習慣,提高了寫作興趣,作文內容言之有物了,寫作形式也有創意了。學生感覺到作文能言我之心聲,揚我之個性。

       

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